<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html><head> <!-- InstanceBeginEditable name="doctitle" --> <title> TM LI CI NGUN V VN HO CA NGI VIT </title> <meta name="keywords"content="CI NGUN, VN HO , NHT LINH, KHI HNG, NGUYN V,TH PHONG LC S VN NGH, BIN LUN, BIN KHO, BNH LUN, DCH THUT, BIN DCH , BIN DIN, LCH S, VN NGH, ,TRUYEN NGAN,TRUYEN DAI, TIEU THUYET, TRUYEN, TRUYEN VIET NAM, TRUYN NGN, TRUYN, TRUYN DI, TIU THUYT, TRUYN VIT NAM "> <meta name="description" content="CI NGUN, VN HO , NHT LINH, KHI HNG, NGUYN V,TH PHONG LC S VN NGH, BIN LUN, BIN KHO, BNH LUN, DCH THUT, BIN DCH , BIN DIN,, VN NGH, TRUYEN NGAN, H NI ,TRUYEN DAI, TIEU THUYET, TRUYEN, TRUYEN VIET NAM, TRUYN NGN, TRUYN, TRUYN DI, TIU THUYT "> <META content="INDEX,FOLLOW" name="robots"> <META name="expires" content="never"> <meta name="abstract" content=" DIEN DAN VAN CHUONG "> <meta name="author" content="DUONGTUVU"> <meta name="copyright" content="VIETART- 2004"> <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8"> <style type="text/css"> <!-- .normal8 { font-family: Verdana, Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 11pt; text-decoration: none} .viet10 { font-family: Verdana, Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 13pt; text-decoration: none} .viet9n { font-family: Verdana, Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; text-decoration: none} .viethead { font-family: Verdana, Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 17pt; text-decoration: none; line-height: 24pt; font-weight: bold} .viethead2 { font-family: Verdana,Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 21pt; text-decoration: none; ; font-weight: bold} .reverse8 { font-family: Verdana, Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 11pt; text-decoration: none ; color: #0000CC; background-color: #FFFF99} .menunav { font-family: Verdana,Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 9px} body { scrollbar-arrow-color: red; scrollbar-base-color: white; scrollbar-dark-shadow-color: white; scrollbar-track-color: white; scrollbar-face-color: blue; scrollbar-shadow-color: #FF00FF; scrollbar-highlight-color: #FF00FF; scrollbar-3d-light-color: #FF00FF; } a:hover { color: #0000CC; background-color: #FFFF99} a:link { color: #3300FF} a:visited { color: #990066} --> </style> </HEAD> <body topmargin="10" marginwidth="10" marginheight="10"BGCOLOR="#FFBEE2"> <div align="center"> <TABLE BORDER="6" WIDTH="99%" height="90%" BGCOLOR="#FFA2D6"> <TD align="center" WIDTH="300" VALIGN="top" " ="0" cellpaing="0" BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"> <BR><BR><BR><B><font color="#9900FF" size="6" face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif "align="Center">TC GI <BR>TC PHM <BR><BR> <img src="images/hoa110.gif" border="0" width="120" height="70" alt=""> <BR> <img src="images/HaVanThuy2.jpg" width="175" height="241" Alt=" "><BR> <img src="images/havanthuy.jpg" border="0" width="290" height="80" alt=""> </DIV> <div align="justify"><B><font color="#0000CC" size="2" face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif"><BLOCKQUOTE> . Sinh nm 1944 . <BR> . Ti Thi Bnh . <BR> . 1967 tt nghip khoa Sinh, i hc Tng hp H Ni. <BR> . 1973 lm vic ti Hi Vn ngh Thi Bnh. <BR> . 1979 lm vic ti Hi Vn ngh Kin Giang. <BR> . T 1996-2000 phng vin bo Vn Ngh Hi Nh vn Vit Nam. <BR> . Hin sng ti thnh ph H Ch Minh.<BR> <BR> TC PHM  XUT BN : <BR><BR> - Bn b vnh Rch Gi tp truyn<BR> - Thi gian gom nht (th)<BR> - Trn H Tin v Tao n Chiu Anh Cc (bin kho)<BR> - Nguyn Th L (tiu thuyt)<BR> - Th tm li ci ngun ngi Vit (bin kho)<BR> <BR><BR> <div align="center"><BR> <img src="images/barre11.gif" border="0" width="200" height="30" alt=""><BR><BR><BR> <B><font color="#FF1493" size="4" face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif "align="Center"> BIN KHO </FONT></B><BR><BR><BR> <font color="#CC00FF" size="2" face="Tahoma, Helvetica, sans-serif "align="justify"> <A href="http://newvietart.com/index4.254.html"> TM LI CI NGUN V VN HO CA NGI VIT -Chng 1 </A> <BR> <BR> <A href="http://newvietart.com/index4.257.html"> TM LI CI NGUN V VN HO CA NGI VIT -Chng 2 </A> <BR> <BR> <BR></BLOCKQUOTE><div align="center"> <EMBED src="http://newvietart.com/musiques/DanChimViet_VanCao.wma" width="280" height="35" hidden="FALSE" autostart="TRUE" loop="1"></embed><BR><b><FONT SIZE="2" COLOR="#3300FF" FACE="Times New Roman" sans-serif> </DIV><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR> <td width="700" rowspan="0" align="center" valign="top" BGCOLOR=#FFFFFF> <BLOCKQUOTE><BR><BR><BR><BR> <BR><BR> <div align="center"> <BR><FONT SIZE="2" color="#590054" FACE="Times New Roman" sans-serif><BR> </div><div align="right"> <img src="images/bienluan1.jpg" border="0" width=355" height="170" alt=""> <div align= "center" > <BR><BR> <img src="images/bia_timlaicoinguon.jpg" border="0" width="271" height="350" alt=""> <BR> <BR> <BR> <div align= "center" > <B><font color="#FF3333"> <span style="FONT-SIZE: 30pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> TM LI <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN:10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <font color="#FF3333"> <span style="FONT-SIZE: 40pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> CI NGUN<p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> V<p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> VN HO<p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <font color="#FF3333"> <span style="FONT-SIZE: 40pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> CA NGI VIT </B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 50pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> </DIV><div align= "RIGHT" > <font color="#FF3333"><B> <span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> KNH DNG NG BO TI <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 3pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> KNH DNG T QUC TI</B> <BR> <BR> <BR><BR> <Table border = "2" width= "560" height= "50" align="center" BGCOLOR="#FFE4E1"> <TD align="center" bgcolor= #FFF0F5> <BLOCKQUOTE> </DIV><div align="center"> </B><p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <span style="FONT-SIZE: 25pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"><font color="#9900FF"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 20pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <B> TA <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 20pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <div align="justify"> C</B> </B><font color="#9900FF"> </B><span style="FONT-SIZE: 13pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> on ngi sinh ra, ln ln, kim n, yu ng, sinh con  ci, chin tranh ginh git... n mt lc no  dng gia chng cng vic, anh ta t hi: Ta l ai? Ta t u ti? Chnh lc ny, con ngi sinh hc  tr thnh con ngi trit hc. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Hng vn nm, t th h ny sang th h khc, con ngi trit nhn - nhng chng hong t Hamlet ca mi thi, khi b hnh trn ng, li hi mnh cu hi mun thu y! C l  c nhiu li gii ngay t tin s nhng chng khng n c vi ta v thi  cha c k hiu ghi chp v cing c th k hiu b thi gian xa nha. V vy, cu hi v ci ngun lun l iu mi m. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Vi ngi Vit, do s phn c bit ca dn tc, vn  ci ngun li cng nhc nhi hn. S nhc nhi hin thnh cu tc ng <I> Chim c t, ngi c tng, </I> mt trong nhng phng ngn giu ngh)a nht ca vn ha Vit. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Vi ngi Vit, c l thc tm v ngun ci tr nn i hi cp thit nht vo th k th X khi ln u tin sau 1000 nm n l, ch quyn c ginh li. Hu th bit n Trn Th Php vi cun <I> L)nh Nam chch qui</I> ca ng. Chn nhng cu chuyn qu ma lm li trong bn t, lm lt t nhng trang sch nc ngoi, ng ghi li cho i sau bit v Kinh Dng Vng, Lc Long Qun, u C cng mt bc trm trng. Bit n L Vn Hu v Phan Phu Tin hai v s gia dm c gan ghi nhng iu hoang ng diu vi vo chnh s. Nhng dng ch  nh m bo m nhiu th h Vit bm ly  quy p li ngc dng li thi gian tm v ngun ci. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhng, nhiu iu cha ng nng niu trn trng th con chu khng tin. Khng th trch h. S i l th, con chu  thnh con ngi trit hc m c trng l nghi ng tt c! <I>"Bn nghn nm vn hin ? Cc c nh mnh kh m mu s-vanh! Ly u ra, ngay c thi i cc vua Hng cing m m lm: lm sao 18 i vua li ko di nhng hn 2000 nm?!" Chnh ngay i Vit s k ton th, pho s ln v uy tn nht nc cing vit: "Tch Quang ngi qun Hn Trung, khi  Giao Ch ly l ngh)a dy dn. Li ly Nhm Din lm thi th Cu Chn... Tc ngi Cu Chn ch lm ngh nh c, i sn, khng bit cy cy. Din mi dy dn khai khn rung t, hng nm cy trng, trm h no ... Phong tc vn minh ca t L)nh Nam bt u t hai thi th y."(1) Cn vn ha Vit ? "Chnh s ch ghi S) vng l Nam Giao hc t sao? T ra th ti nh Hn chng ta mi c vic hc! Vy th vn hin ci ni g?"</I> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhng suy ngh) trn  dn n tng cc oan vong bn nh th ny: <I>"V vn ha, ta  bt chc ngi Tu mt cch m mi v v iu kin. Nu vn ha ca ta cn khc vn ha Tu th cing ch v ta bt chc cha xong m thi. Vn ha ta khc vn ha Trung Hoa khng phi  ch ta thc s khc m l  ch ta cha bng. S khc bit  trnh  nhiu hn  bn cht!"(2) </I> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Xin ni thc lng, k vit nhng dng ny cing thuc ging con ngi t duy nn bit bao nm bn khon khn kh ch v mt cu ca: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 60pt"> <I>Cng cha nh ni thi sn <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 60pt"> Ngh)a m nh nc trong ngun chy ra!</I> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Thi sn l g? Hn ni ln. Nh vy cng cha to nh hn ni ln! Cn nc trong ngun th d ri: nc u ngun, dt do m trong tro! Yn ch! n khi nghe m mm bit c Thi Sn, ngn Ngun l hn ni dng sng bn Tu th lng bt nhn: Sao cha ng ta vong bn n vy? Chng cp nc ta cha  sao m cn thng cn nh cn n ngn ni dng sng bn Tu?! Qu na i but au v mc cm ! <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Ngy nay trong hon cnh ton cu ha v hi nhp, trc nguy c b xm lng vn ha, thy trn nhiu phng tin truyn thng i chng v c nhng ch th ngh quyt ni nhiu n cm t <I> bo v bn sc vn ha dn tc. </I> Nhng khng hiu sao c cm tng l, ngi ta cng ni nhiu th s vic cng ri tung ri m ln, n ni chng ai hiu vn ha dn tc l g! T  m bit bao vic lm ty tin ln xn, ci ng b th gi, ci ng gi li b, ci g c li trc mt th  cao ri bo  l truyn thng, l bn sc! Rut b ra da m ly... ci ra nc mt! <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Thit tng s d) c chuyn trng nh xui kn thi ngc nh vy chnh bi v cha c c s thng nht trong hai nhn thc c bn: 1/Dn tc Vit Nam l ai? V 2/ Vn ha Vit Nam l g? <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Cho n nay tht ng bun l ngi Vit cha hiu c dn tc chng ta l ai, t u ti. Chnh v vy cng m m hn v ci ngun vn ha dn tc. Gii p hai cu hi trn l vn  c bit quan trng v bc xc hin nay. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Khng phi l nh nghin cu lch s nhng l nh vn quan tm ti vn ha dn tc, chng ti tm dng cun tiu thuyt ang vit v Triu Vi , xin th bn v hai vn  trng i ny. Rt mong qu v cao minh ch gio. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> <B> Li Cm n : </B> Ngi vit chn thnh cm n cc tc gi c sch tham kho trong chuyn lun ny. c bit cm n nhng tc gi ngi Vit  nc ngoi: Ts Nguyn Th Thanh, Lut s Cung nh Thanh, GsTs Nguyn Vn Tun, cc ng Nguyn c Hip, Nguyn Quang Trng. ng Hoi Thanh bo i chng cung cp nhng ti liu qu. Cm n bn ti,  Thi Nguyn v Gs Ranjan Deka i hc Cicinnati Hoa K gi cho nhng thng tin mi nht. Chnh tr tu v thnh tnh ca cc v  soi sng v ng vin chng ti hon thnh cun sch. Cm n v ti, ngi  vt v nhiu v ti. Cun sch ny cing l nn nhang tng nh Cha ti. <div align="RIGHT"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 30pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> Si Gn, Xun t Du <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 15pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> H VN THY <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 30pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> </div></TD></TR></TABLE BORDER> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BLOCKQUOTE> </DIV><div align="CENTER"> <B><p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <span style="FONT-SIZE: 20pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> <font color="#FF3333"> PHN MT <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0pt 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> V NGUN GC NGI VIT <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 20pt 0pt 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> CHNG II <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0pt 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> NGUN GC NGI VIT <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0pt 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> THEO QUAN IM HIN I </B><p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 50pt 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <div align="JUSTIFY"> <B>V </B> </B><font color="#0000FF"></B><span style="FONT-SIZE: 16pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt">  mt a l, Vit Nam nm trong vng ng Nam v vy c chung vn mnh lch s vi cc dn tc khc trong khu vc. H qu t nhin, ngun gc ca ngi Vit khng th khng lin quan ti cc tc ngi lng ging. V vy, ta ch c th tm ra ci ngun ngi Vit trn con ng tm kim ci ngun nhng chng ngi cng c trn a bn ng Nam . Gii quyt vn  ny, khoa hc  i theo hai giai on khc nhau. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 15pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> <B> A. NHNG THNH TU CA NHN CHNG HC C IN</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhn chng hc c khai sinh t gia th k XVII vi nhng tn tui nh hc gi ngi Php Francois Bernier, tip  l nh phn loi hc bc thy K.Linne ngi Thy in ri Buffon, Blumenbac... Cho n cui th k XX, h thng phng php nghin cu ca nhn chng hc th gii l so snh hnh thi ng vn trn bn tay, hnh thi b rng v phc h khng nguyn trn hng cu  ngi hin i v so snh hnh thi hc s ngi c. Trong hai th k ri r m lm vic vi nhng dng c n gin l ci ru ci cuc cng nhng thc o, cc nh nhn chng hc c in  lm c khi lng cng vic khng l: tm kim ngun gc con ngi ri phn chia thnh nhng loi hnh v ch ra s chuyn ha ca chng. Nhng tri thc nhn chng hc  gip cho con ngi bc u hiu c mnh l ai, t u n, gp phn nng cao v tr con ngi trong t nhin huyn b. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Vi cc dn tc ng Nam , nhn chng hc c in gip gii quyt nhng vn  rt c bn m nu thiu nhng tri thc , chng ta s ri vo tnh trng mng mui. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt">  xc nh ci ngun t tin ngi Vit, chng ti khng c cch no khc l tm hiu ci ngun cc tc ngi ng Nam khc. Trong cng vic ny, cng trnh <I> Nhn chng hc ng Nam </I> ca nh nhn chng hc hng u Vit Nam Nguyn nh Khoa c nhng ng gp quan trng. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt">  y chng ti xin gii thiu nhng tng ch yu ca ngi i trc ng thi  nhng ch thch hp, a ra kin tho lun. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> Kho st nhng s ngi Homo Sapiens c tm c khp ng Nam nh s ngi Hang Nia  Bc Kalimantan, Vadjak  Giava (Indonesia),  Tam Hang, Tam Png (Lo),  Xamrngxen, Long Prao tnh Kmpung Chnng (Camphuchia), 38 b xng ngi c  Bn Kao (Thi Lan) v 38 s tm thy ti nhiu di ch  Vit Nam, cc nh nhn chng hc a ra nhn nh: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Thi i  mi, c dn trn lnh th Vit Nam v c ng Nam thuc hai i chng Australoid v Mongoloid cng vi cc loi hnh hn chng gia chng cng c vi nhau, trong  Indonesien v Melanesien l hai thnh phn ch yu.(9) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhn nh ny da trn vic kho st mt s nhm dn c c th: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 10pt"> <B>1/ NGUN GC CC TC NGI NGN NG MN-KHMER</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Cc tc ngn ng Mn-Khmer hin nay tp trung ch yu trn bn o ng Dng v cing c mt  tt c cc nc trong khu vc, ng nht l  Campuchia (4 triu), Vit Nam (2 triu gm ngi Khmer Nam B, Bana, X ng, K ho. H r, S ting, Bru, Vn Kiu, Kh m, Khng...), Thi Lan (trn di 2 triu) v cc nc khc nh Lo, M Lai... gn 1 triu. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> V ngun gc c dn ngn ng Mn-Khmer c nhiu kin khc nhau. Gi thuyt c nhiu ngi tn thnh l ca E. Aymonier cng b nm 1904 cho rng: T tin nhng tc ngi ngn ng Mn-Khmer thuc v chng tc Negritoid, bt ngun t nhng sn ni pha Nam Ty Tng ri chia i ra v di chuyn v phng Nam theo hai hng - hng Ty Nam sinh ra ngi Munda  n , hng ng Nam sinh ra tc ngi Mn-Khmer  ng Dng. (Aymonier E - Le Cambodge T.3 Paris 1904. Dn theo <I> Nhn chng hc ng Nam , </I> tr. 118) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> S.I. Bruk, nh nhn chng hc Lin X cho rng, t cui thin nin k th II TCN, i b phn ng Dng  c mt ngi Mn-Khmer t pha Ty Nam Trung Quc trn xung (Bruk S.I. <I> Thnh phn tc ngi v s phn b c dn  cc nc ng Dng. Dn tc hc X Vit, </I> s 1.1950. Dn theo Nguyn nh Khoa) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Cc nh nhn chng hc kt lun: "Phn ln ngi ni ngn ng Mn-Khmer u l dn bn a ng Nam lu i. Ci ngun ca h l t nhng dng chuyn tip Austro-Mongoloid ang trong qu trnh phn ha vi nhng nt "c trng phng Nam", t  sinh ra cc loi Vedoid v Indonesien nguyn thy - nhng ch nhn ca bn o ng Dng c i, v sau phn b rng khp ng Nam ." <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nh vy c th kt lun khi qut: Cc tc ngn ng Mn-Khmer  ng Dng v ng Nam hin nay l nhng c dn bn a. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 10pt"> <B>2/ NGUN GC CC TC NGI NGN NG VIT- MNG</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> i din cho cng ng ni ngn ng Vit-Mng l ngi Vit v ngi Mng. Ngi Vit c hn 50 triu sng tp trung  ng bng chu th. Tc Mng trn 600.000 ngi, c tr kh tp trung  min thng du v trung du Bc B v Bc Trung B. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Ngi Vit v ngi Mng u c nhng c trng tiu biu ca nhm loi hnh ng Nam trong chng ngi Mongoloid phng Nam. Ngi Vit v ngi Mng xa vn cng chung mt ci ngun, nhng  tch ra thnh hai dn tc trong mt hon cnh lch s nht nh, gi thit khong th k XI tr v sau ny, khi nh L ginh c c lp, nh tan qun xm lc nh Tng. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Mt nhn nh khc: Ngn ng Vit-Mng hin nay v trc y l ngn ng chung ca nhng tc ngi thuc c hai nhm loi hnh nhn chng Indonesien v Nam . <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Ti y, mt vn  ny sinh: r rng, thnh phn Nam xut hin mun hn (vo thi  ng) trong khi thnh phn Indonesien hnh thnh sm (thi i  mi). Nh vy, ngn ng Vit-Mng cing c ci ngun c xa nh nhng ngi Indonesien nguyn thy nht hay ngn ng Vit-Mng hnh thnh mun hn trn c s tip xc v giao lu gia cc cng ng ngi, c th khc nhau v ting ni v ngun gc? Cc tc gi nh H Vn Tn, Phm c Dng, Nguyn nh Khoa cho rng: xut pht t ngn ng c Indonesien chuyn sang trung gian Vit-Mng chung v cui cng thnh ngn ng ng Nam Vit Mng. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> V bc chuyn ha ny, Nguyn nh Khoa vit: "Ngi Indonesien vn l thnh phn ch th ca bn o ng Dng t thi  mi, ko di mi ti sau ny, v t thi i  ng tng ng vi x hi cc vua Hng th xut hin mt hnh thi nhn chng mi - ngi Nam c l t tin cng ca cc tc ngi thuc loi hnh Nam hin nay, trong  c ngi Vit Mng." <I> (Con ngi thi Hng Vng. Kho c hc </I> s 9-10 thng 6-1971) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 10pt"> <B>3/ NGUN GC CC TC NGI NGN NG H MNG - DAO.</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Ci ngun cc dn tc Hmng-Dao vn t pha Nam Trung Quc, sau ny di chuyn dn xung bc bn o ng Dng.  Trung Quc hin nay, ngi Hmng tp trung ng nht ti Qu Chu v cc tnh gip ranh nh Vn Nam, T Xuyn, H Nam, Qung Ty... Ngi Dao phn b dch v pha ng Nam so vi vng phn b ca ngi H mng, tp trung ch yu ti Qung ng, Qung Ty... Ngi H mng, Dao c mt  Vit Nam, Lo, Thi Lan, Min in.  Vit Nam ng hn c, khong trn 600.000 ngi. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> V thnh phn nhn chng, ngi Hmng-Dao thuc nhm loi hnh ng Nam ca chng Mongoloid phng Nam. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Theo Nguyn nh Khoa, t nhng th tch ci cng ti liu kho c hc, ngn ng hc, nhiu nh nghin cu cho rng, ngi H mng v Dao c chung ci ngun t tin xc nh khong ngt 3000 nm trc (cui thin nin k th II TCN) m a bn c tr l vng h ng nh. l nhng b tc Tam Miu hay Miu dn. V sau do s bnh trng ca ngi Hn nn con chu ngi Tam Miu ly tn dn v Nam. Vo u Cng nguyn, h cn chim l)nh mt vng rng ln t b nam sng Dng T ti gip gii hai tnh Qung ng, Qung Ty. Bng chng v s tn ti ca h, l nhiu ti liu kho c hc: vn ha ng  pht trin  T Xuyn v vng ln cn chng t ch nhn chng l dn c nng nghip dng cuc, nh c,  nh sn. Trong hin vt tm thy ru c vai, loi cng c khng c  H Nam, Cam Tc... Nn vn ha ny khc hn vn ha Ngng Thiu, ngh)a l khng phi Hn, cing khng chu nh hng ca vn ha Hn (Theo Its R.F <I> Ngi Mo. Tp thng bo v cc dn tc ng Nam . Vin Dn tc hc Lin X, </I> M.1960. Dn theo <I> Nhn chng hc ng Nam . </I> ) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Vo thi Nam Bc triu (265-583) s sch cn ghi: ngi H mng-Dao tp trung ng o quanh Ngi L)nh, ta ra ng bng H Nam. Nhng sau , t th k th VI n th k VIII, tc Hn thn tnh min ny, cc tc ngi khng phi Hn hoc tr thnh ph thuc ngi Hn hoc di c n ni khc. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Trong qu trnh ly tn xung phng Nam lnh nn,  trnh khi dit vong hoc b ng ha bi Hn tc, h di c theo hai con ng khc nhau. Khi H mng (Man Miu) di tn theo hng Qu Chu, tng i tp trung trong khi ngi Man Dao theo hng Ty Nam i v Nam L)nh Sn, ng him tr nn phn chia thnh nhiu nhm. Thi gian ny  vo khong th k IX. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> T nhng phn tch trn, gii nhn chng hc nhn nh: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> a. Khi H mng-Dao cing nh ngn ng H mng-Dao bt ngun t mt vng pha nam sng Dng T ri thin di xung phng Nam v chia thnh hai tc ngi H mng v Dao t th k VI v tch hn vo th k IX. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> b. Ngi Dao n Bc ng Dng  khong gn 1000 nm v cn nhiu t tip theo sau ny. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 10pt"> <B>4/ NGUN GC CC TC NGI NGN NG THI.</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Cc tc ngn ng Thi-Ty tp trung ch yu  ng Dng, ngoi ra cn sng tn mc ti ng Bc n  (Assam), Nam Trung Quc (Vn Nam, Qung ng, Qung Ty, Hi Nam), bn o Malacca. Tng s dn khong trn 50 triu, trong  trn 30 triu  Thi Lan. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhiu nh nghin cu cho rng, qu hng xa ca ngi Thi  khu vc tnh Vn Nam, Trung Quc, tip gip vi ng Dng. H chnh l mt trong cng ng khi Bch Vit vo nhiu thi k trong thin nin k I TCN, do s chn p ca ngi Hn,  thin c theo hai hng ng v Nam. Dng ngi sang ng i ti Qung ng, Qung Ty, Bc B Vit Nam, mt s ti o Hi Nam. Dng theo hng Nam men theo cc thung ling v trin sng, ta ra cc nc ng Dng. Ngi Thi Lan hin nay l con chu nhng nhm Thi i xa nht v pha nam. Cc nhm ta sang ng l t tin ngi Lo v cc tc Thi  Ty Bc Vit Nam. Cc nhm ta sang ty l ngi Shan (Min in), sau ny c mt nhnh sang Assam (ng Bc n ). Nhng cing c kin cho rng, do ngi Thi lm nng nghip la nc nn phi pht sinh t min t thp gn duyn hi, c th chnh l hai tnh Qung ng v Qung Ty, Trung Quc. Nh nhn chng hc ngi M W.G. Solheim II cho rng: "C nhiu nt tng ng v khng c s khc bit quan trng gia ngi dn thi   mi  Bn Kao vi ngi Thi hin nay." Ni cch khc, t tin dn tc Thi  Thi Lan  c mt trn t nc cch nay 3000-4000 nm. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 10pt"> <B>5/ NGUN GC CC TC NGI NGN NG TNG - MIANMA.</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Ngn ng Tng-Mianma l mt nhm trong dng ngn ng Hn.  ng Nam c ngi Mianma ng nht (trn 20 triu), ngoi ra cn cc sc dn Karen, Katchin, Tchin, Kaya, Ll, H Nh, La H...V nhn chng hc, ngi Mianma cing l mt loi hnh trong nhm ng Nam ca chng Mongoloid phng Nam. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> C thuyt cho rng, ngi Mianma vn ngun gc t mt c dn du mc gi l Ch iang, xa c tr  Ty Bc nc Trung Hoa c i, gia sa mc Gbi v min ng Bc Ty Tng. Nh vy t nhiu c th k cn vi vng sinh t pha ty ca ngi Bch Vit. S sch tng ni ti   mi ca h t 3000 nm TCN. Sau , do s ln chim ca ngi Hn nn h ri qu hng tin dn xung pha nam tip xc vi ngi Ty Tng ri ti cng vc ca ngi Bch Vit. Ti y, do quan h mt thi gian di vi cc tc ngi ngn ng Thi, h tip thu vn ha mi vo khong thin nin k I TCN. H c mt  Thng Mianma vo nhng th k sau CN. Hnh thi nhn chng ca ngi Mianma hin nay l h qu trc tip ca qu trnh hn chng lu di vi nhiu nhm ngi thuc chng Nam Mongoloid (Ty Tng, Thi, bn a ng Dng). Chc l loi hnh nhn chng t tin ngi Mianma khng ng nht vi con chu h by gi. Rt c th trc y,  l nhng ngi c c im t nhiu gn vi ngi Mongoloid phng Bc nh tm vc cao ln, hp s di trung bnh, mt di... Nay  ngi Mianma  hnh thnh nhng c trng phng Nam nh ngi Thi v c t vo loi hnh ng Nam . <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 10pt"> <B>6/ NGUN GC CC TC NGI NGN NG M LAI - POLYNESIA</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Vng phn b hin nay ca ngn ng M Lai-Polynesia tp trung ti cc nc Indonesia, Philippine, mt phn Malaysia. Phn cn li tn mc  mt s nc trn bn o ng Dng nh Vit Nam, Campuchia, Thi Lan... <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Ngi ni ngn ng M Lai-Polynesia cu thnh khi dn tc a s  Indonesia, (Giava, Sunda, Madura), Philippine (Vixai, Tagal) v  M Lai.  cc nc khc, h thuc thnh phn cc dn tc t ngi nh dn tc Chm  Vit Nam, Campuchia. V chng tc, h cing khng ng nht. i b phn thuc nhm loi hnh Nam . l cc dn tc a s  Indonesia, Philippine, Malaysia v mt s thnh phn dn tc t ngi  cc nc ni trn hay trn bn o ng Dng (Chm). Cn li l nhng biu hin a dng ca nhm loi hnh Indonesien v Vedoid. c im ni bt ca c dn ngn ng M Lai-Polynesia l s hn chng cao gia nhng chng ngi khng cng ngun gc ban u. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> C hai gi thuyt v ngun gc cc dn tc ngn ng M Lai-Polynesia: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 1/ Khu vc hnh thnh u tin l min Nam Trung Quc, t  lan truyn xung ng Nam v chu i Dng. 2/ L vng o ng Nam , m trung tm l t min ng Indonesia ti Nam Philippine ri lan ra xung quanh ti Nht Bn, Polynesia, vnh Bng Gan, Madagascar. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhng tc gi theo gi thuyt 1 cho rng : "Vng phn b c xa nht ca ngn ng M Lai-Polynesia xc nh l khong gia sng Thanh Giang v sng Dng T, thuc v nhng b lc nng nghip nh c ca ngi Vit trong khi Bch Vit, c mt  y t nhng thin nin k III-II TCN. iu kin lch s x hi vo cui thin nin k III u thin nin k II TCN  kch thch s di c ca nhiu nhm Bch Vit. T tin cc cng ng M Lai-Polynesia  t lc a ti i Loan v  li di du (ngi Cao Sn). Hin nay  pha Nam Trung Quc khng cn tc ngi no ni ngn ng M Lai-Polynesia nhng du tch ngn ng ny  pht hin trong ngn ng Thi v mt s tc ngi  Bc Vit Nam. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Gi thuyt th hai do G.W. Solheim II  xut (Solheim W.G.II Reflections on the new data of Southeast Asian Prehistory: Austronesian origin and consequence- Paper presented at the First International conference on comparative Austronesian Linguistics, January 1974; Honolulu- Hawaii): Ci ni ban u ca ngn ng Nam o khng th  pha ng Nam Trung Quc m  ng Nam , v trung tm ca n l khu vc t cc o pha ng Indonesia ti Nam Philippine. Thi k hnh thnh ca ngn ng ny vo khong 4000 nm TCN. Giai on ngn ng Nam o lan rng ra xung quanh vo khong thin nin k II TCN, bc ti Nam Trung Quc, ng ti Polynesia. Cing vo giai on ny t tin ngi Chm n duyn hi Vit Nam v  li du tch trong phc h gm Sa Hunh. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Theo chng ti, c l thc t lch s l s kt hp c hai gi thuyt: T tin ngi Chm xut hin t khong 60.000 nm trc,  min Trung Vit Nam, thuc nhnh Australoid. T y h ha huyt vi ngi Mogoloid ri thin di theo hai hng: hng nam xung cc o nh Indonesia, Philippine cn pha bc ti Nam Trung Quc (v c th i xa hn trong nhng ngi chinh phc chu M). Nhng ngi t  Nam Trung Quc nhp vo i gia nh Bch Vit v c ng Nam ha. Cng chu chung s phn lch s vi ngi Bch Vit, vo thin nin k II TCN, ngi Chm thuc nhm loi hnh ng Nam c tr ti lu vc Trng Giang tr v ni xut pht l min Trung Vit Nam cng cc o ngoi khi. Trong khi , nhng ngi tr li min Trung Vit Nam lm nn vn ha Sa Hunh. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> T bc tranh ton cnh nhn chng ng Nam trn, cc nh nhn chng hc rt ra 2 kt lun: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> a- Vo thi mi, c dn ng Nam thuc hai i chng Australoid v Mongoloid cng vi cc loi hnh hn chng gia chng cng c vi nhau, trong  Indonesien v Melansien l hai thnh phn ch yu. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> b- Sang thi ng-st, trn ton ng Nam din ra vic chuyn ha mnh t loi hnh Indonesien sang loi hnh Nam (Mongoloid phng Nam). Thnh phn Australoid thu hp n ti a trong khu vc. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Hai kt lun trn l ng gp quan trng cho nhn thc v nhn chng hc ng Nam . <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Tuy vy cng trnh ca Nguyn nh Khoa cing cn nhng hn ch: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Th nht: Vn theo thuyt cho rng t tin ngi ng Nam t Ty Tng xung. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Th hai : Khng cho thy nguyn nhn ca s chuyn ha mnh v ng lot t loi hnh Indonesien sang ng Nam vo thi  ng. Th ba : Khng gii thch v sao, cc tc ngi nh Mon-Khmer, Thi Ty... c s di chuyn t pha Nam Trung Quc xung th ngi Vit li khng c s di c ny, trong khi cc ti liu lch s cho thy ngi Lc Vit l nng ct trong dng Bch Vit tng sinh sng  Trung Quc.  khng ch l hn ch ca tc gi m cing l gii hn ca nhn chng hc c in. Nhn chng hc c in vi cng c th s v phng tin cc bon nh du C14 khng th cho nhng kt qu   c th a ti nhng kt lun tha ng. <div align="center"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 15pt 0pt 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> <img src="images/havanthuy2.gif" border="0" width="510" height="380" alt=""> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0pt 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> </B><font color="#CC00FF"></B><span style="FONT-SIZE: 13pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> Bn  nhn chng ng Nam hin i <BR> (Ch thch t trn xung: Nam , Indonesien,Vedoid, Negritoid)<BR> (Ngun: Nhn chng hc ng Nam ) <div align="JUSTIFY"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 25pt 0pt 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 0pt"> </B><font color="#0000FF"></B><span style="FONT-SIZE: 16pt; FONT-FAMILY: &#39;Times#39;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt"> <B>B. NG GP CA NHN CHNG HC HIN I</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhn chng hc c in ng gp v cng ln gip con ngi t nhn thc v mnh. Nhng vi phng php cng cng c hn ch, nhn chng hc c in nh bt lc trc nhng cu hi bc xc nht v t tin loi ngi v mi quan h gia cc tc ngi. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Cui th k XX, ti ni m nhn chng hc c in dng li th mt khoa hc nhn chng mi ra i, <B>dng cng ngh genes kho st s hnh thnh v bin i ca loi ngi.</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> y l ngnh khoa hc thc nghim i hi phng tin nghin cu hin i v a n kt qu c  chnh xc cao. Khoa hc nhn chng hin i da trn hai nguyn l: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> a/ Genes l nhn t bn vng gip cho nhn din s c mt ca tng loi hay tng chng sinh vt theo a bn phn b ca chng. Nh vy, nhn t gene cho ta nhn bit s phn b ca tng loi, tng chng sinh vt theo khng gian. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> b/ Trong mt loi, mt chng, genes tuy bn vng n nh nhng li c nhng nhn t bin i qua tng th h theo xu hng cng xa t gc, cng gim dn. Da vo c im ny, dng thut ton thng k, ngi ta nh ra ch s bin thin a hnh thi (polymorphic variation) hay ch s a dng sinh hc (F-value)  nhn bit s phn b ca sinh vt theo thi gian. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Da vo cng ngh genes, nhiu nh nghin cu  khm ph chnh xc mi quan h nhn chng trong cc cng ng dn c v pht hin genes di truyn nhng nhn t gy bnh. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Vo thp nin 90 th k trc, trong khi cc nh khoa hc phng Ty ang i ti hon tt vic khm ph bn  gene ngi th ngi Trung Quc cing rt nhy bn vi thnh tu khoa hc mi ny. Bng ngun kinh ph ca Qu khoa hc t nhin, h u t cho D n a dng di truyn ngi Hn (Chinese Human Genome Diversity Project) vi mc ch tm hiu ngun gc ca ngi Hn v cch cha tr mt vi bnh di truyn. Nhiu nh khoa hc  i hc Bc Kinh v Thanh Hoa Thng Hi hp tc vi ng bo, ng nghip ca h ti i hc Texas bang Huston v i hc Cicinnati Hoa K tham gia D n ny. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Ngy 29/9/1998 nhm nghin cu  cng b bn bo co gy chn ng gii khoa hc nc M. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhng nt chnh ca bo co nh sau: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 1/ Gs Chu cng ng nghip thuc i hc Texas phn tch t 15-30 mu microsatellites (mt DNA)  kho st s khc bit di truyn trong 24 nhm ngi Hoa, 4 nhm ngi ng Nam , 2 nhm th dn M, 1 nhm th dn c, 1 nhm thuc New Guinea v 4 nhm da trng Caucase. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Kt qu phn tch cho thy: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> a. Cc sc dn ng Nam tp hp thnh mt nhm di truyn. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> b. Nhm dn c c tnh di truyn gn gii vi dn ng Nam l th dn M sau  l th dn c v New Guinea. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> c. c dim di truyn ca ngi Hn min Bc khng ging ngi Hn phng Nam. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nhm nghin cu a ra m hnh: Cc dn tc Bc c tin ha t ng Nam v a ti kt lun:<B>T tin cc nhm dn ng ngy nay c ngun gc t ng Nam .</B>Kt lun ny cing cho rng, t tin ca nhng ngi ni ting Altaic  pha Bc Trung Quc cing t ng Nam ln ch khng phi t ng Trung sang nh t trc vn hiu. (10) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Tuy nhin, nghin cu ca nhm gio s Chu c im yu l ch da vo mtDNA, mt nhn t di truyn rt mn cm nn khng bn vng, d b t bin, c th dn ti kt qu sai lc. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 2/ Khc phc nhc im trn, mt nhm nghin cu khc da trn nhim sc th Y (Y-chromosome)  kho st nhng i din ngi Hoa  22 tnh Trung Quc, 3 nhm dn ng Bc , 5 nhm ng Nam (Campuchia, Thi Lan, M Lai, Batak, Java) v mt s nhm dn ngoi chu . <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Kt qu nghin cu ghi nhn: <B>Mc  bin thin a hnh thi</B>(polymorphic variation)<B>trong nhm ng Nam cao hn nhm ng Bc .</B>Khi phn tch di truyn qun th (population genetics)  a n kt lun: <B> Con ngi di c t chu Phi sang ng Nam khong 60.000 nm trc v sau  di chuyn ln Bc , Siberia. Cc nhm dn Polynesian (a o) cing c ngun gc t ng Nam .</B> (11) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 3/ Mt nghin cu ca nhm khoa hc Hn Quc: Kim&ng nghip dng 5 genes trong nhim sc th Y  kho st 2 nhm dn Bc (Trung Quc, Nht Bn, Hn Quc, Mng C) v Nam (Indonesia, Philippine, Thi Lan, Vit Nam) cho thy<B> ngi Vit gn vi nhm dn Bc (nht l Hn Quc) hn l cc nhm dn Nam .</B> (12). <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 4/ Trong mt nghin cu kho st tn s bin thin mtDNA ca 153 mu vt c lp t 7 qun th chu , Ballinger S.W nhn thy s a dng ln nht cing nh tn s cao nht ca mtDNA HpaI/HincII dng 1  ngi Vit Nam chng t ngun gc Mng C phng Nam ca ngi chu . iu ny cing c ngh)a l <B>Ngi Vit Nam c hn c trong cc sc dn ng Nam </B>(13) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 5/ Nh khoa hc ngi M gc Hoa L Hunh (Li Jin) cng nhm ca ng  i hc Tng hp Texas qua cng trnh kho st nhn t microsatellites lp li lin tc trong chui xon DNA ca 43 nhm ngi Hoa phn b khp chu a ra kt lun: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> <B>Homo Sapiens (ngi khn ngoan) t chu Phi thin di ti Trung ng. T Trung ng mt nhm r sang pha ng i qua Pakistan, n  ri men theo b bin Nam . Nhm ngi ny n ng Nam vo khong 60-70.000 nm trc. H ngh ngi  y khong 10.000 nm ri chia tay nhau: 50.000 nm trc t chn ti chu c, 40.000 nm trc ti New Guinea... Mt b phn i tip ln pha Bc, ti Trung Hoa. T y, h i xa hn na ti Siberia, bng qua eo bin Bering ti Alasca vo chu M, thnh ngi th dn chu M.</B>(14) ) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 6/ Hai cng trnh ca Peter Savolainen v Jenifer A. Leonard cng ng nghip phn tch xng ch c tm c  Mexico, Perou, Bolivia... thy rng cc loi ch c a vo chu M trc thi Columbus u bt ngun t ging ch u-. Khi nghin cu k, thy t tin ch nh l ch si ng Nam bi phn tch DNA cho thy a dng di truyn ca cc loi ch ng Nam cao hn nhiu so vi loi ch chu u. c th l t con ch si duy nht c thun ha cch nay t nht 15.000 nm (15). <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Kt lun ny cing ph hp vi pht hin t gia th k XIX ca C. Darwin trong cun <I> Ngun gc cc loi </I> (The Origin of the Species ): tt c cc ging g nui trn th gii u c ngun gc t g rng ng Nam . iu ny cing ph hp vi thng bo chng ti va nhn c t Gs Nguyn Vn Tun (Garvan Institute of Medical research nc c): ging g chi ni ting Shumo ca Nht cing c ngun gc ng Nam . <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 7/ Cing trong thi gian nhng thng tin trn cng b th mt cun sch gy xn xao d lun c pht hnh. l cun <B>a ng  phng ng</B> ca Stephen Oppenheimer. ng l tin s) khoa Nhi ngi Anh, tng sng 20 nm  vng o ng Nam . T nghin cu lch s, truyn thuyt, ngn ng, x hi v di truyn  nhiu nc ng Nam , ng a ra nhiu thng tin mi v vng t huyn b ny. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> S. Oppenheimer chng minh rng, 60.000 nm trc, khi ngi tin s t chn ti ng Nam th Tri t ang trong thi bin thoi: mt nc bin thp hn ngy nay 130 met. Khi , ng bng sng Hng lan ra ti tn o Hi Nam v c t tn l lc a Nanhailand. Cing th, vng Bc Indonesia lan ti nam o i Loan l ng bng Sunda, c gi l lc a Sundaland. Ngi tin s ti sng  vng t thp nhiu sng h, cy ci rm rp kim n d dng ny. Chnh t y cc chng ngi gp nhau, ha huyt lm nn t tin ngi ng Nam . Cing chnh ti y, cng c ,  gm c ch tc, cy la v khoai s ra i cng vi nhng con g con ch u tin c thun ha. Vo khong 18.000 nm trc, nc bin bt u dng mi nm 1 cm. Mt s nhm ngi di c ln khu vc cao hn  pha Ty v lm nn Vn ha Ha Bnh. Khong 8000 nm trc, do nc dng tht cao, ln ti Vit Tr, lc a Nanhailand v Sundaland chm trong nc, y mt b phn ln dn ng Nam di chuyn ln lc a Trung Hoa to nn   mi  Trung Quc.(16) <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Tng hp nhng nghin cu trn a ti nhn nh sau: <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 1/ Con ngi t ng Phi thin di ti Trung ng. T y mt nhnh r hng ng qua ng Pakistan, n  ri men theo b bin Nam n lc a ng Nam khong 70 n 60.000 nm trc. Ngh li  y 10.000 nm sau  hu du ca h i ln pha Bc, ti Trung Quc, n Siberia ri vt eo Bering t chn sang chu M khong 30.000 nm trc. Cing t ng Nam , mt nhnh n c vo 50.000 nm trc v n New Guinea 40.000 nm trc. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 2/ Hin tng ngi Vit gn ngi Bc , nht l Hn Quc (nghin cu 3) l l t nhin v cng ng Bch Vit sau khi khai ph lc a Trung Hoa  b ngi Hn chim t, buc phi trn ra bin, sang Nht, Hn Quc. Ngi Nht, ngi Hn hin i l hu du ca ngi U Vit trong dng Bch Vit. Vi ngi Hn cn c yu t lch s na: vo cui thi nh L, th k XIII nhiu nhm thuyn nhn nh L t nn vt bin n Hn Quc trong  c hong thn L Long Tng dn mt on di dn hong tc khong 500 ngi sang c Bc v Nam Hn. Qua hn 700 nm, nhng thuyn nhn ny b sung ngun genes Vit vo dng mu Hn. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 3/ Kt lun<B> ngi chu c ngun gc Mng C pha Nam </B>ca Ballinger l c c s: Ngi tin s n ng Nam gm hai i chng Mongoloid da vng v Australoid da en. Trong thi gian dng chn ti min t ny, hai i chng  ha huyt to nn chng Indonesien, Melanesien cng nhng chng trung gian gia chng (Nguyn nh Khoa Sd). y l kch bn chung theo on nh ca cc nh nhn chng hc. Tuy nhin rt c th xy ra kh nng sau: <B>mt nhm Mongoloid v l do no  khng ha huyt vi chng Australoid, i theo con mi ln pha bc ng Nam v sng bit lp.</B>Khi bng h va tan, on ngi ny vi vng i ln theo con ng Ba Thc ri nh c  ty bc Trung Quc thnh chng <B>Mongoloid phng Bc.</B> Ngi Hn phng Bc l mt nhnh ca chng tc Mng C ny. Gi thuyt trn c cng c nh cng b ca Gs. Ranjan Deka i hc Cincinnati, mt trong nhng ngi tham gia D n a dng di truyn ngi Hn: <B>"Nhng qun th t ng ti lun lun bt ngun t mt dng ring r, iu ny to nn ngun gc ring bit ca nhng qun th ."</B> (Populations from East Asia always derived from a single lineage, indicating the single origins of those populations.<B> Los Angeles Times,</B>September. 29.1998). Do mt s ngu nhin no , mt dng ring r thun Mongoloid i ln phng Bc ri nh c  ty bc Trung Hoa  lm nn chng Mongoloid phng bc. C th tm thy dn chng trong kho c hc: " iu kh khn nht l rt t s ngi c tm ra  y, d c di ch    Mng C (vn ha Hetao) v  bc Trung Hoa vo hu k  ci. Ngoi ba s thuc lp kho c trn  trong hang Zhoukoudian xem nh thuc chng tin (proto) Mongoloid, ngi ta ch tm c s Liujiang (Qung Ty). S ny c tui nh kh tr (10.000 nm trc), nhng di vt trong Bailiandong (Bch Lin ng) gn  li c tui 30.000 nm trc.(17). D rt him hoi nhng nhng du vt trn cho thy: ngi Mongoloid t ng Nam theo hnh lang pha ty ln ty bc Trung Quc. Vic ngho nn di vt cing ni ln mt iu: nhm ngi ny tuy i lm nhiu t nhng v s lng khng nhiu nn ch to c qun th thiu s Mongoloid phng Bc. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nh vy, cho d c gi l nhm Mng C pha bc th thc cht h cing t ng Nam i ln.  xut ca Ballinger S.W hon ton c c s. Rt c th t tin ngi Altaic cing t ng Nam i ln theo cch ny? <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 0pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Cng thi gian , ngi Bch Vit thuc chng Indonesien, Melanesien-sn phm ha huyt gia hai i chng Mongoloid, Australoid v l ch nhn ca Vn ha Sn Vi, Ha Bnh i ln khai ph lc a Trung Hoa, sng tn mc khp Hoa lc, t lu vc sng Dng T ti lu vc sng Hong H. Khong 2800 nm TCN ngi Hn trn qua sng Hong H xm ln, dn ngi Bch Vit xung pha Nam. Trong khong thi gian nhiu ngn nm tip xc Hn-Bch Vit  xy ra s ha huyt gia hai chng ngi khin yu t Mongoloid trong ngi Bch Vit tng ln. Trong qu trnh ny, dn Bch Vit chuyn dn t Indonesien, Melanesien sang loi hnh ng Nam . Do ngi Bch Vit ng m ngi Hn Mng C phng Bc t nn trong thc t, cuc ha huyt vi Bch Vit khin cho ngi Hn phng Bc b ng ha thnh ngi Mng C phng Nam. Ngi thi ng Ngu, ri sau  l nh H, m H Vi l ngi Miu Vit. Tip theo l nh Thng. Thnh Thang, ng vua u tin ca Trung Quc l ngi mang gene chu Phi en t ng Nam i ln, c n Lo t cing vy. (The Shang, for example, China s first dynasts are described as having "black and oily skin". The famous Chinese sage Lao-Tze was "black in complexim". (Los Angeles Times, September. 29. 1998) (Thang, ng vua u tin ca Trung Hoa c m t l c nc da en bng. Trit gia ni ting Lo t cing c mu da en.) Nhm chng tc thuc loi hnh ng Nam ny theo thi gian tr nn thnh phn ch th ca dn c ng . l l do dn n <B> Ngi chu c ngun gc Mng C phng Nam v genes ngi Hn phng Bc khng ging ngi Hn phng Nam.</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 4/ Kt lun ca nghin cu s 2: <B> Bin thin a hnh thi</B>(polymorphic variation) <B>ca ngi Nam cao hn Bc </B> v nghin cu s 4:<B>Ch s a dng sinh hc </B>(F-value) <B>ca ngi Vit cao nht trong nhm dn ng Nam . </B>Hai kt lun ny cho thy <B>Ngi Vit l c dn lu i nht ng Nam , cing c ngh)a l lu i nht  ng .</B> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 5pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> 5/ Nghin cu 6 ni v ch cing l ni v ngi bi nhng vt nui  khng th t lm nhng cuc hnh trnh vn dm. Chng l ti sn ca con ngi trong bc thin di. iu ny thm bng chng cho vic ngi ng Nam nng nghip thun dng ch v  ti chu M t nht l 15.000 nm trc. <p class="MsoBodyText" style="MARGIN: 10pt 0cm 5pt; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt"> Nh vy l nh cy ia thn cng ngh genes, khoa hc  gip gii c bi ton vn l mi bn tm ca nhn loi hng trm nm nay. Tri ngc vi nhng l thuyt c cho l kinh in trc y, ngi ng khng phi t cao nguyn Ty Tng i xung m t ng Nam i ln. Cing khng phi nc Tu l trung tm ca th gii, ngi Trung Quc khng phi l con tri m l cng ng c sinh ra mun hn trong nhng sc dn ng. Vn minh Trung Hoa d rc r n my cing l k tha ca nn vn minh la nc Vit tc huy hong trong qu kh... Ci g ca Cesa phi c tr li Cesa! 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